Biography: Francesco Ferro Milone
Francesco Ferro Milone was born on August 26, 1926 in Turin, the son of Cesare Ferro Milone, professor of drawing and then President of the Albertina Academy of Turin, and Andreina Gritti, student of Philosophy at the Faculty of Philosophy and Mathematics of the University of Turin.
From 1932 to 1938 he attended the Don Bosco elementary school and from 1938 he attended the classical high school "Massimo D'Azeglio" in Turin and then the classical high school "Arnaldo da Brescia"in Brescia, to escape the constant bombing of Turin and to follow his mother, displaced in Roè-Volciano (BS) in the house of the Gritti-Tracagni family of which she was originally. On June 2, 1944 he obtained his classical high school diploma.
He travels frequently between Roè-Volciano and Turin by train, on foot, by bicycle, between the rubble and the destruction of the Second World War, in the company of Italian soldiers of the Republic of Salò, German occupation soldiers and partisans, trying to maintain contact with the two older brothers, Marco and Andrea, soldiers until 8 September and then in the Resistance (Andrea Ferro Milone was deputy commander in the SAP, captured and imprisoned by the fascists in December 1944 and released shortly before April 25, 1945).
On November 1, 1944 he enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Turin and on July 15, 1950 he graduated in Medicine and Surgery, discussing an experimental thesis prepared at the Institute of Physiology of the University (Ordinary Director Anna Maria Di Giorgio) entitled: "Hypoxia refexes in the decreased excitability of the bulbar respiratory center", then published in the Bulletin of the Italian Society of Experimental Biology (January 27, 1951) and on its counterpart in German).
Afer serving as a draf at the Alpine Military School of Aosta, on 1 November 1952 he was appointed Volunteer Assistant at the Chair of the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the University of Turin (Director Prof. Dino Bolsi).
He dedicates himself in particular to the newly established Neurosurgery (Director Prof. Paolo Emilio Maspes) with the functions of operating assistant and electroencephalographer. He participates in the first surgeries performed in Italy through temporal lobe lobotomy for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy resistant to anti-epileptics.
In the same year he graduated in Neurology and Psychiatry (70/70), discussing the thesis: "Extra-pyramidal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of choreoathetotic movements" (see Bibliography).
On 1 November 1957 he was appointed Extraordinary Assistant to the chair of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the University of Turin (Director Prof. Dino Bolsi).
The following year, on 1 November 1958, he was appointed Extraordinary Assistant and the following year, afer passing the public competition, he became Ordinary with Help functions at the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the University of Siena (Director Prof. Giuseppe Gomirato).
With the suffered transfer to his functions of Assistant at the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases of Siena he was appointed as ﬁrst operator in the neurosurgical operating room of Arezzo (Director of the Neurological-Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Prof. Marino Benvenuti) where he was invited to create the first Stereotactic Neurosurgery Unit. In the meantime, he graduated in Neurosurgery at the Surgical Clinic of the University of Turin (Director Prof. Achille Mario Dogliotti).
In 1959 he created the first Stereotactic Neurosurgery Center in Italy in Arezzo. The goal is to identify the places where epileptic discharges are believed to originate in the depths of the human brain. This innovative technique allows to introduce some electrode needles with small drill holes, performed under local anesthesia, for both recording and therapeutic (electrolysis) functions.
At the Stereotactic Neurosurgery Center of Arezzo, where he works with the fundamental contribution of the electro-encephalographer Franco Angeleri (then Director of the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the University of Ancona) and of the neuroradiologist Silvano Parigi, he completes over six hundred explorations deep brain (thalamus, striatum, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, etc.) by means of needle-electrode insertion at home, followed in selected cases by circumscribed therapeutic electrolysis, without ever recording any operative or post-operative accident.
The results of this work are contained in a monographic supplement of the Journal of Neurobiology published by the Institute of General Biology of the University of Perugia (Vol.VII, Fasc.4, pag. 900-1004, 1961) with the title: "Contributions of cerebral pathophysiology by means of stereotaxic explorations and stereotaxic demolitions in humans", contemporary with an English-language publication entitled: "Electrical activity and reactivity of the rhinencephalic, pararhinrncephalic and thalamic strutures: prolonged implantation of electrodes in man. ", (EEG Clin.Neurophysiol.16,100-129, 1964). This is a work repeatedly cited in the volume" Electroencephalography "by Niedermeyer E. and L. Da Silva (Williams & Williams, Baltimore / US, 1999, pg. 721).
In 1962 he moved to the University of Pisa in the footsteps of Prof. Giuseppe Gomirato, who had won the chair of Ordinary of Neurology at that university. While continuing to manage the Stereotactic Neurosurgery Center of Arezzo, he is mainly dedicated to teaching neurology and collateral diagnostic tools, such as electroencephalography and electromyography. He carries out academic assignments at the School of Specialization in Nervous and Mental Diseases (1962-1968) and with a position in Child Neuropsychiatry.
In 1963 with ministerial competition he obtained the Free Teaching in Neurosurgery and in 1966 that in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases at the University of Pisa (both confirmed by ministerial decree and deposited), then from 1972 at the University of Verona.
On November 15, 1969 he won the competition for primary neurology at the Civil Hospital of Vicenza and there he applied and perfected his clinical and electro-brain-my-graphic experience until retirement in 1993, due to age limits.
Afer 1993 he continued his professional and research activity with particular regard to electro-encephalography, at the "Alzheimer Center" Institution of Villa Rota Barbieri of the
Municipality of Vicenza and at the non-profit institution Prosenectute (Moral Body with Regional Decree n ° 4060 of 14-07-1987), establishing with Prof. Adolfo Porro, geriatrician, Dr. Franco Binda, geriatrician and Prof. Tullio Minelli, professor of Mathematics at the "Galileo Galilei" Institute of Physics of the University of Padua, a research group in the field of nonlinear electro-encephalogram analysis, applied in particular to the problems of brain aging. From this activity, with the essential contribution of Prof. Tullio Minelli, five degree theses and one doctoral thesis arise between 1997 and 2013.
In the period 2004-2008 the same group of researchers carried out research on a sample of subjects recruited in the Alzheimer Day Center of Villa Rota-Barbieri and on a larger sample throughout the Province of Vicenza. In total, 640 subjects, both male and female in the range 65-85 years, undergo psychological screening and electroencephalogram, with a study protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Provincial Order of Physicians of Vicenza on January 2, 2004, and by the Ethics Committee of the SSN- USL No. 6. Vicenza July 26, 2004. The criteria suggested by the Italian Society of Neurology were followed for the diagnosis and recruitment procedures of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD).
The purpose of this activity is to verify whether there are more effective stimulation mechanisms than others in promoting the recovery of the functions lost by the brain. In this phase the researchers randomly discover that, by giving patients an intermittent light stimulation (henceforth SLI) during the execution of the electroencephalogram, in the elderly subjects a wider response (synchronization) of the alpha waves occurs, compared to the control population. The research results show how the difference in spectral response between EEG stimulated with SLI and not stimulated is, for LED light at 650 nm and with frequencies between 8 and 13 Hz, very signiﬁcant (p <0.001) in subjects affected by decay mild mild cognitive (MCI) and on the contrary not very signifcant in normal subjects and in AD dementia (2).
Cognitive impairment was assessed in parallel using the Rivermead test, showing the same variations observed for the EEG, i.e. a difference between the score before and afer the significant stimulation (p <0.05) in MCI subjects and not signiﬁcant in AD subjects . In particular, treatment with SLI initially stops the decay of memory functions and afer 12 months produces a gradual improvement in the total test scores, while for the control group there is a significant and progressive deterioration.
Subsequently, it was observed that the variations in amplitude-frequency, quantified by determining the spectral density of Fourier power over 10 s EEG periods, sampled at 1024 Hz (quantitative EEG) are more marked with longer wavelengths (red light ) and less marked with shorter wavelengths (blue light).
In conclusion, the correlation between alpha rhythm and cognitive functions has been hypothesized since the ﬁrst electroencephalogram studies over 50 years ago, but conﬁrmation has only come in the last twenty years. On the other hand, the phenomenon of synchronization, understood as a "cooperative" phenomenon between nerve cells, underlies most of the cognitive operations of our brain. Recent research also shows how alpha rhythm, as an index of thalamo-cortical activity, is correlated with working memory, through inhibition phenomena, documented both with EEG and with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). This aspect of memory suggests that the cognitive degradation of the elderly, in memory tasks, at least in an initial phase, does not derive from a general
impoverishment of cognitive abilities, but rather from a selective weakening of the mechanisms of suppression and inhibition of irrelevant stimuli that they play a fundamental role in the encoding, storage and retrieval of information.
To these considerations we must add the importance of visual stimulus in the context of the general economy of our brain. This stimulus is essential in the synthesis of trophic factors (BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor), which are indispensable for the growth and diﬀerentiation of neurons and synapses.
In this context, the observations carried out and the analysis of the results obtained led to the conclusion that the SLI with monochrome light at 650 nm, centered on the frequencies of the alpha brain rhythm (8-13 Hz), can eﬀectively contribute to the prevention and improvement of pathological manifestations of some neuro-degenerative brain diseases, which cause progressively decreased memory (senile dementia of diﬀerent extraction) and cognitive deterioration. The beneﬁcial eﬀect manifests itself in two diﬀerent ways:
Short-term eﬀect: through the electrical resonance mechanisms the SLI improves the synchronization of the neuronal mass with consequent improvement of the working memory and therefore of the cognitive faculties, this eﬀect can be obtained through repeated stimulation once or several times a day for 10 minutes and for a period of 2-6 months;
Long-term eﬀect: the constant and long-lasting application of light stimuli (transformed by the retina into electrical stimuli for the brain) favors the development of new connections between brain cells and therefore a stable improvement of brain functions and consequently of cognitive faculties.
The application procedure does not involve the appearance of harmful secondary eﬀects, both on the retina and on the brain, without prejudice to the main contraindication that prohibits their application in the presence of a predisposition to epilepsy.
Finally, it was observed that the SLI determines, in the population of subjects subjected to prolonged stimulation (10-20 minutes a day for at least 4-8 weeks), a signiﬁcant antidepressant eﬀect as well as an eﬀect on the sleep-wake cycle with regularization of night rest . Comments that could be a starting point for further project developments.
The Mnemosline project
The results of the research ﬂow into the Mnemosline project, with the creation of a device for the application of intermittent light stimulation: these are glasses on which LEDs are applied that emit light pulses with monochromatic light at 650 nm centered on the frequencies of the brain alpha rhythm .
Mnemosline therapeutic glasses, produced in Italy by Telea Medical (a Vicenza-based company specialized in the development and production of innovative medical devices), with constant use, allow to obtain appreciable results already afer a few weeks.
THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY to which reference is made refers to INTERMITTENT LIGHT
STIMULATION centered on the individual frequencies of the electro-encephalogram as indicated in the following PATENTS (headed by F. Ferro Milone): VI2007A000313 (PROCEDURE FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE LIGHT EMULSES EMITTED FROM LEDS APPLIED TO A PAIR OF GLASSES - also PCT) and VI2011A000285 (ELECTRODE FOR EEG TESTS AND ITS APPLICATION IN A PORTABLE HELMET FOR ENCEPHALO-GRAPH TESTS).
The experimentation relating to patents was carried out with the AUTHORIZATION of the Ethics Commi[ees of the Medical Association of the Province of Vicenza (20 January 2004) and of the Ethical Commi[ee of the USL No. 6 Vicenza (26 July 2004).
Prizes and Achievements
Ernesto Lugaro Prize 1961-62
In 1962 his team work at the Center for Stereotactic Neurosurgery in Arezzo earned him a coveted recognition, the Ernesto Lugaro 1961-62 Award, with the following motivation from the Commission:
"(...) The complex of the works presented (...) can be considered a series of contributions with a single common thread represented by the use of stereotaxia for the analysis of complex problems of human physiopathology, from a neurological and They are characterized above all by the absolute modernity of the instrument of exploration and investigation adopted (...). The unitary group of publications presented by Angeleri, Ferro Milone and Paris, makes a very worthy contribution to the knowledge of Physiology and Pathophysiology intrinsic, for the technical rigor and for the contribution that derives, for example, in the eﬀects of the pathogenetic interpretation of eileilexia, they must be kept in ﬁrst consideration for the eﬀects of the competition for the Ernesto Lugaro prize "1961-1962" (f.to: D. Bolsi, F. Loreti, O. Pinotti, G. Gastaldi, A. Rubino).
Journal publications (Publications on review)
F. Ferro Milone, "Hypoxia reﬂexes in the decreased excitability of the bulbar respiratory center", Bull. Soc. It. Biol. Sper., 27: 1, 1951
F. Ferro Milone, G. B. Lussa, C. Terzuolo: "A hypothesis on the mechanism of the striated action with regard to brain electrical activity"., Neurone, 3: 333-336, 1953
F. Ferro Milone, G: B: Lusso and C. Terzuolo: "Experimental contribution to the physiology of
the striated body (caudate nucleus)". Minerva Medica, 44: 1-3, 1953
F. Ferro Milone, "Experimental contribution to the study of extrapyramidal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of choreo-athetotic movements", Journal of Nervous and Mental Pathology, 76: 1-6. 1955
F. Ferro Milone, G.Gomirato, "Observations expérimentales sur le comportement de l'activité corticale spontanée et évoqué sous l'action des neuroleptiques", L'Encephale, 4: 853-857, 1956
V. Bergamini, F. Ferro Milone, "Parameters of the single muscle action potential of the myasthenic muscle. Eelectromyographic investigation.", Archive for Medical Sciences, 81: 1-8, 1956
F. Ferro Milone, "Comparative observations on the clinical evolution of the 31 cases of astrocytomas and glioblastomas prevalent in the temporal lobe", Surgery, 11: 348-349, 1956
V. Bergamini, S. Broglia, F. Ferro Milone and L. Ravizza: "Parameters of the single potential for muscle action in progressive myogenic muscular dystrophy". Neuron, 5: 1-8, 1957
F. Ferro Milone, A. Angeleri and S.Parigi: "The electrical activity of the temporal lobe and the behavior in relation to posthumous archipallial and amygdaloid discharges". Neurobiology Magazine, 5: 477-507, 1959
Ferro Milone and A. Kluzer ;, "Brain abscesses of thrombophlebitic origin from contiguous septic processes". Minerva Neurosurgical, 3: 1-11, 1959.
Gomirato, A.Sicuro, and F. Ferro Milone, "Anatomo-clinical considerations on 53 cases of metastasis of the central nervous system" Minerva Medica, 50, 1-11, 1959.
G.F. Fasssina and F. Ferro Milone: "Eﬀectiveness of cortisone in the treatment of post- operative cerebral edema". Journal of Nervous and Mental Pathology, 81: 70.7165, 1960
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone and S.Parigi :, "Possibility of Stereotactic Neurosurgery in the treatment of psychomotive epilepsy (ﬁrst therapeutic results on critical manifestations and behavioral disorders), Journal of Neurobiology, 6: 263-276, 1960.
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi: "Stereotactic surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (results obtained with electrolysis of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in 20 operated cases). Journal of Neurobiology, 6: 1, 1960
F. Ferro Milone, F. Angeleri, S.Parigi, "Stereotactic system of multiple probes at home in the brain for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, Journal of Neurobiology, 7: 157.163, 1961.
S.Parigi, F. Angeleri and F. Ferro Milone :, "Ipsilateral facial contractions from hippocampal stimulation in humans Neurobiology Journal, 7: 187-196, 1961.
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi :, "Contributions of simultaneous deep recordings from the human brain to the problem of electroencephalography of epilepsy with particular regard to that of the temporal lobe" Journal of Neurobiology, Supplement, 6: 901-1094 , 1961.
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi: "Electrical activity and reactivity of the rhinencephalic
pararhynencephaloc and thelamic structures: prolonged implantation of electrodes in man". EEG Clin Neurophysiol.:16,100-129,1964.
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi, "Thalamic electrophysiopathology in man" Journal of Neurobiology, Supplement, 7: 944-985, 1961
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi, "Observations on the electrical activity of the olfactory bulb and the temporal pyriform cortex in man obtained by implanting deep electrodes (pneumo-encephalographic coordinates for stereotaxic targets, Journal of Neurobiology, Supplement, 7: 986, 1961
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi, "First observations on modiﬁcations of the extrapyramidal, epileptic, schizophrenic depth traces induced by drugs acting on the S.N.C.", Journal of Neurobiology, Supplement, 7: 1041, 1961
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Pargi, "Rhinencephalon and sexual behavior" Journal of Neurobiology, Supplement, 7: 1008, 1961,
F. Angeleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi, "Psychic eﬀects due to stimulations or thalamic and rhinencephalic lesions. Introductory considerations to stereotactic psychosurgery", Journal of Neurobiology, Supplement, 7: 1075, 1961
F. Ferro Milone, G.F. Fassina. "First aid for cranio-cerebral traumatized patients (action of cortisone patients on cerebral edema following trauma)", Minerva Chirurgica, 17: 209, 1962.
N. D'Antona, S. Parigi, F. Angeleri, and F. Ferro Milone, "Behavior of urinary excretion of pituitary gonadotropins in subjects subjected to stereotaxic interventions on the rhinencephalon (amygdala) and on the thalamus (Ventro-lateral N. of the talamo) ", Bull. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., 3
G. Gomirato, G.F. Fassina, F. Ferro Milone, "The use of cortisone and anti-hyperthermia in the treatment of acute cranio-cerebral trauma". Minerva Neurosurgical, 7,1-52,1963.
Angeleleri, F. Ferro Milone, S.Parigi: "Auditory and verbomotor sensory eﬀects forced by stimulation of the thalamic nuclei of extrapyramidal relays". Neurobiology journal, 10: 81-90, 1964.
Martinelli, F. Alunni Gaggioli, F. Ferro Milone: "The electroencephalogram in adolescent Mongoloid idiots (considerations on cortical bioelectric immaturity", Journal of Neurobiology, 10: 539-550, 1964.
S.Parigi and F. Ferro Milone: "Observations on the stimulation with stereotaxic method of the caudate nucleus in man". Journal of Neurobiology, 12: 3-9, 1966.
S.Parigi and F. Ferro Milone: "Thalamus and state of consciousness" .Riv.Neurobiology, 12: 18-24, 1966-
S.Parigi and F. Ferro Milone: "Thalamus and aﬀectivity". Neurobiology magazine, 12: 10-17, 1966.
F. Ferro Milone, C.C.Perfetti: "Electro-neuro-mygraphic study on the peripheral paralysis of
the facial and its amer-eﬀects". Riv. Oto-Neuro-Ophthalmology, 41: 1-18, 1966.
F. Ferro Milone, C.C.Perfetti: "Disorders of subjective and objective sensitivity in facial paralysis" .Riv. Oto-Neuro-Ophthalmology, 41: 1-10, 1966.
D. Lorizio and F. Ferro Milone, "The electroencephalographic examination activated by spontaneous sleep or by sleep induced by non-barbiturate hypnotic (ortho-quinazolone) in 50 epileptic and cerebropatic children". Riv. Neurobiol., 12: 605-621, 1966.
F. Ferro Milone, E.Gandini-Collodelme, S.Parigi, "Pathophysiological and clinical considerations on 4 cases of spastic stiﬀ neck, 2 of which treated with Thalamus-pallidolysis". Riv. Neurobiol., 13: 177-191, 1967.
F. Ferro Milone and S.Parigi: "On the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the brain biopsy performed with stereotaxic method (in patients with Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, spastic stiﬀ neck". Neurobiol. Rev., 13: 167-176 , 1967.
F. Ferro Milone, R. Pezzini, A. Lorizio: "Clinical and electroencephalographic study of children who have suﬀered from perinatal hypoxia", Riv. Neurobiol., 12: 11-19, 1967.
F. Ferro Milone, C.C.Perfetti: "The speed of conduction of the pyramidal bundle in humans (preliminary study by means of capsular stimulation with stereotaxic method in three Parkisonian subjects" Riv. Neurobiol., 13: 447-453, 1967.
C.C.Perfetti, F. Ferro Milone, A.Pacchiani "Inhibition of the muscular responses reﬂected in the eye's orbicularis following trigeminal and extratrigeminal conditioning stimuli" (in coll. With
C. C. Perfetti), Riv. Neurobiol., 13: 491, 1967
C.C.Perfetti, F. Ferro Milone, and A. Lorizio: "Study of mono and polysynaptic reﬂexes of facial and trigeminal muscles in man" Riv. Neurobiol., 13: 1-10, 1967.
A.Lorizio, F. Ferro Milone, and C.C.Perfetti: "The EEgraphic picture of the spontaneous night sleep of patients with cerebral atrophy". Riv. Neurobiol., 13: 1-12, 1967.
A.Lorizio, F. Ferro Milone, and C.C.Perfetti: "Changes in the Egraphic picture of spontaneous night sleep in ponto-bulbar circulation disorders". 13: 1-13, 1967
F. Ferro Milone .: Physiopathology problems of the motor unit. Riv.Neurobiol., 15: 380 to 399.1969.
C.C.Perfetti. and F. Ferro Milone, F: Inhibitory inﬂuences on trigeminal-facial reﬂex activity in humans. Riv.Pat.Nerv.Ment., 90.81 to 91.1969.
C.C.Perfetti., A. Gobe[o, F. Ferro Milone, C.Agostini: Peripheral neuropathy due to methylguanidine. Riv.Pat.Nerv.Ment., 80.92 to 98.1969.
F. Ferro Milone., F. Denoth, P. Viviani, A. Lorizio: A statistical method of automatic analysis of the electroencephalogram. Riv-Neeurology, 39: 72-81,1969.
F, Ferro Milone., C.C.Perfects: The automatic calculation in electromyographic-graphic diagnostics: analysis of the discharge intervals of the motor unit. Calculation, 4: 137-155,1968
F. Ferro Milone: Automatic processing of the electronencephalogram and stereoelectroencephalogram. Calculation: 5.91-118.1969.
Ferro Milone .: Consideration on the automatic analysis of the EEG data. EEG Clin.Neurophysiol., 28: 212, 1970.
D’Andrea, M. Toldo, A. Cananzi and F. Ferro Milone, "Study of platelet activation in Migraine: control by low doses of aspirin.", Strole, 15: 271-275,1984.
A. R. Cananzi, F. Ferro Milone, F. Grigole[o, "Relevance of platelet factor four (PF4) plasma level in multiple sclerosis", Acta Neurol.Scand., 76: 79-85. 1987.
M. Morra, D. Philipszoon, G. D’Andrea, R. Cananzi, R. L'Erario, F. Ferro Milone, "Sensory and motor neuropèathy vaused by excessive omgestion of vitamin B6: a case report", Functional Neurology, 8,429-432,1993 - Riv.Neurobiol.:,17:388- 396.1971.
F. Ferro Milone, G. Righini, A. Premoli, "Spectral analysis of EEG fata", EEG Clin.Neurophysiol., 33,355,1972.
C. Cerone, F. Cirigno[a, G. Coccagna, F. Ferro Milone et Al., "All night polygraphic recordings on the hypnotic eﬀects of a new benzodiazepine (ﬂunitrazepa /RO-5-4200 Rohypnol)", Europ.Neurol. , 11.172 to 179.1974.
A. Lorizio., F. Ferro Milone, A. Franciosi: "Depakin in the treatment of the typical, atypical and variant small disease", Neuropsich.Inf.:163:93-108.1975.
F. Ferro Milone, A. Lorizio, G. Nordera, "Study of HD responses and silent period and post- tetanus potentiation in Parkinson's disease patients during L-DOPA treatment", Riv.Neurol-: 45: 236-246,1975.
F. Ferro Milone, T. A. Minelli and L. Turicchia, "Neuron Synchronization and Human EEG Phenomenology Simulation", Nonlinear Dynamics Psychology and Life Sciences 2, 21-33 1998.
M. Balduzzo, F. Ferro Milone, T. A. Minelli, I. Pi[aro Cadore and L. Turicchia: "Mathematical phenomenology of neural synchronization by periodic ﬁelds", Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences 7, pp. 115-137, 2003.
F. Ferro Milone, V. Nofrate, A. Porro: "Enduring intermi[ent photic stimulation enhances dynamic activity of the EEG and memory processes". Rivista Ital.Neurobiol., (4), 209-218, 2004.
F. Ferro Milone, F. Aporti, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate, A. Porro and A. Leon Cananzi: "EEG pa[erns in Alzheimer's disease: intermi[ent photic stimulation and sampling rate", European Journ. of Neurology 10 (Suppl.1), 92-93 2003.
F. Ferro Milone, A. Leon Cananzi, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate and D. Pascoli: "Contribution to debate on linear and nonlinear analysis of the electro-encephalogram", Chaos & Complexity Le[ers 1 (part 2), pp. 191-206, 2004.
T.A. Minelli, M. Balduzzo, F. Ferro Milone and V. Nofrate: "Modeling cell dynamics under
mobile phone radiation", Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology & Life Sciences, 11, 197-218, 2007.
F. Ferro Milone, T. A. Minelli and F. Binda: "Alpha Rhythms and Memory Processes: an intriguing question". Chaos & Complexity Le[ers, 4: 3-6, 2008
F. Ferro Milone, T. Minelli, A. Porro, F. Binda: "EEG alpha rhythm and behavioral memory test (Rivermead): a study of a possible interdependence in controls and subjects aﬀected by mild cognitive impairment", Psychogeriatrics, 11: 39-65, 2009.
F. Ferro Milone, A. T. Minelli, R. Cian: "Alpha Rhythms Response to 10 Hz Flicker Is Wavelength Dependent", Neuroscience & Medicine, 4: 94-100, 2013; doi: 10.4236 / 2013.42015.
F. Ferro Milone, A. Bolner, S. Nordera, Z. Scalinci: "Pulsed LED's Light at 650nm Promote and at 470 nm Suppress Melatonin's Secretion", Neuroscience & Medicine: 6: 35-41, 2015.
Angeleri, F., F. Ferro Milone and S. Parigi: Electrical activity and reactivity of the rhynencephalic, pararhynencephalic and thalamic structure: prolonged implantation of electrodes in man, EEG Clin. Neurophysiology, 16: 100-129,1964. “…gli AA.presentano il primo risultato, in Italia, di registrazione e stimolazione di strutture profonde dell’encefalo umano in una prospettiva di terapia chirurgica con metodo stereotassico, di alcune forme di epilessia del lobo temporale…”
Babiloni C., F.Babiloni, F.Carducci et Al.: Human cortical EEG rhythms during long term episodic memory task. A high-resolution EEG study of the HERA model. Neuroimage, 21:1576-84, 2004. “…high resolution study of brain rhythmicity during visual episodic memory recognition task…the strict relation between gamma response and perception suggest that retrieval processes of long term memory deeply impinged upon sensory representation of the stored material…”
Baddeley, A.: Working Memory, Oxford Psychology Series, n°11, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1986. “…working memory differs from short term memory (STM) in that it assumes both the storage and manipulation of information, and in the emphasis on its functional role in complex cognition…”.
Balduzzo,M., F. Ferro Milone, T.A. Minelli, I. Pittaro Cadore and L. Turicchia: Mathematical phenomenology of neural synchronization by periodic fields, Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences 7, 115-137 ,2003. “…Neuron synchronization has been hypothesized as the basic mechanism leading neurological phenomena like low electroencephalographic rhythm dimension and high coherence….cognitive processes such as associative memory can also b explained in term of neuron synchronization…”
Baggio C., T. Cenacchi , G. Bolcioni, R. Zanini, G. D’Andrea, A. R. Cananzi, and F. Ferro Milone: Power, coherence and phase in the EEGs of normal elderly subjects: early signs of changes in high resolution pattern in the alpha band.: EEG Clin. Neurophysiol., 82: 38P, 1992. “…the high sampling rate and digital resolution of present EEG records allow more accurate resolution in spectral analysis and the application of more appropriate methods based on nolinear dynamics and fractal geometry requiring large data sets…”
Battiston, L., F. Ferro Milone, C. Gabrieli, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate, A. Pascolini: Non-Linear Analysis of EEG Signals, Nonlinear Dynamics, SIF Conference Proceedings Vol.48, M. Costato, A. Degasperis e M. Milani eds. p.127 (SIF Bologna,1995). “…we present preliminary results from wavelet analysis as a different point of view on data analysis which is able to improve locally in both space and time the classical Fourier analysis…”
Basar, E.: The theory of the whole-brain work. Int.J.Psychophysio., 6’:133-1348, 2006. “…memory is a constant work in progress. the report introduce a new model on memory basing on the processes of EEG oscillations and brain dynamics…the expression of dynamic memory is used for memory processes that evoke relevant changes in alpha, gamma, theta and delta activities…the new analysis to recognize faces emphasizes the importance of EEG oscillations in neurophysiology and Gestalt analysis…”
Bernardi N., T. Pizzorusso, G. M. Ratto, and L. Maffei : Molecular basis of plasticity in the visual cortex. Trends in Neurosci., 26 (2003) 369-378. (see Caleo).
Borella E., B. Carretti, R. De Beni: Working memory and inhibition across the adult life-span. Acta Psicologica, 128 (2008) 33-44. (see De Beni)
Caleo M. ,Maffei, L.: Neurotrophins and plasticity in the visual cortex. Neuroscientist, 8:52-61, 2002. “…the visual cortex is one of the favourite models for the study of experience-dependent changes in neuronal structure and function…neurotrophic factors of the NGF family (neurotrophins) play a pivotal role in the visual cortical plasticity…are present in the cortex during the critical period for synaptic transmission…neurotrophins modulates synaptic transmission and patterns of neuronal connectivity in the cortex…”
Danysz W., C.G.Parsons, H.J. Mobius, A.Stoffler, and G.Quack: Neuroprotective and symptomatological action of Memantine Relevant fo Alzheimer’s disease. A Unified Glutamatergic Hypothesis on the Mechanism of Action. Neurotoxicity research,2:85-97,1999. “…in the case of low magnesium condition impaired LTP was restored in the presence of relevant concentration of Memantine….”
De Beni R., P. Palladino, F. Pazzaglia, and C. Cornoldi: Increase in Intrusion Errors and Working Memory Deficit of Poor Comprehenders. Quarterly J. Exper. Pshychol., 51A (1998) 305-320. “…the poor comprehenders obtained a significantly lower performance in the memory tasks an made a higher number of intrusion errors particularly in animal words…”
Ferro Milone F., T. A. Minelli and L. Turicchia: Neuron Synchronization and Human EEG Phenomenology Simulation, Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences 2 , 21-33 (1998) “…the nonlinear dynamics underlying the EEG time series is expected to be explained in term of competition between coherent electric oscillations resulting from synchronized neurons and desynchronizing sensor stimuli…a simplest model i.e. an effective neuron…producing synchronization is based on a system of oscillators with impulsive coupling…successful for its simplicity and calculus efficiency…”
Ferro Milone F., V. Nofrate, A. Porro: Enduring intermittent photic stimulation enhances dynamic activity of the EEG and memory processes.
Rivista Ital. Neurobiol., (4), 209-218, (2004). “…spectral analysis in AD patients shows a non-significative difference between photo-stimulated and non photo-stimulated EEG at the initial stage, but significative between the last stage and more significative between the initial and final stage of stimulation (ANOVA p<0,01)… Rivermead test application (double form) shows significative improvement of the behavioural memory between initial and final stage (6 month SLI)(ANOVA p<0,01)…”
Ferro Milone F., F. Aporti, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate, A. Porro and A. Leon Cananzi: EEG patterns in Alzheimer’s disease: intermittent photic stimulation and sampling rate. European Journ. of Neurology 10 (Suppl.1), 92-93 (2003). “…we observed that high sampling rate (4096 Hz) was of major utility in detection of early EEG-PDR (Photic Derived Responses) changes, resulting from alteration in the synchronization in the thalamus-cortex axis….moreover nonlinear analysis (embedding, correlation dimension, fractal dimension) AD patients show higher dimension at 4096 Hz than control subjects and vice versa at 128 Hz (presence of noise?)…”
Ferro Milone F., A. Leon Cananzi, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate and D. Pascoli: Contribution to debate on linear and nonlinear analysis of the electroencephalogram. Chaos & Complexity Letters 1 (part 2) (2004), pp. 19 “…an approach to brain complexity in term of synchronization has been attempted via nonlinear dynamics methods and an effective reduction to simple models has been suggested…”
Ferro Milone F., T. Minelli, A. Porro, F. Binda: EEG alpha rhythm and behavioural memory test (Rivermead): a study of a possibile interdependence in controls and subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment. Psicogeriatria, Il: 39-65,2009. “…20-40 min. every day Intermittent Light (LED 650 nm) Stimulation in the range of the peak frequency of the alpha rhythm improves behavioural memory performances in aged subjects whose show EEG deterioration and memory failure…” (ANOVA p<0,001)
Ferro Milone F., T. Minelli, F. Binda: Alpha rhythms and memory processes: an intriguing question Chaos and Complexity Letters, Vol.4, pag.3, 2008. “…we hypothesize that the improvement of memory in aged subjects, treated with prolonged Intermittent Light Stimulation by LED 650 nm, in the range of the alpha rhythms, may be due to enhancement of the alpha rhythms which plays an increased role in the inhibitory control of timing of cortical processing, not directly involved in the retrieval, and therefore protect retrieval against intrusion errors, during working memory tasks. This finding may be ascribed to the enhancement of synaptic efficacy and plasticity of neurons involved in the alpha frequency range (RE and cortex)…”
Ferro Milone F., T.A.Minelli, and L.Turicchia: Nonlinear analysis of the EEG time series “…an approach to brain complexity in term of synchronization has been attempted via nonlinear dynamical methods and the effective reduction to simple models has been suggested….also preliminary experiments by Grassberber-Procaccia algorithm confirm the expectation of low dimensionality for large cluster of synchronized neurons…”
Freeman W.J. : How Brains make up their mind. (Come pensa il cervello: La dinamica dei neuroni e delle popolazioni di neuroni). G. Einaudi Ed.: Torino, 2000, pp.48-80.
Gabrieli C., F. Ferro Milone, G. Ferro Milone, T.A. Minelli, L. Turicchia: From the mathematical anatomy to the mathematical physiology of brain co-operative phenomena. Proc. Intern. Conf. Caos & Fractal Models, Pavia October,1996 , Italian University Press, 1998 “…the rhythm generation has been simulated, by modelling the physiological mechanisms producing the EEG signal, as the final output of the post-synaptic firing, with a global phe-nomenological black box filter associating a typical polyphasic response, with each postsynaptic impulse, generated by a single integrate-and-fire neuron….the model highlight the integrate-and-fire synchronization mechanism and give support to the explanation of the low dimension of brain activity…”
Gazzeley A., J.A.Cooney, J.Rissman, & M.D’Esoisito: Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging. Nature Neurosci., 8:1298-1300, 2005. “…top-down modulation is a cognitive control mechanism…using fMRI study we show that healthy older adults, demonstrated e prominent deficit in the suppression of the cortical activity associated with task irrelevant representation, and this suppression specific attention deficit ,correlates with impaired working memory performance…”
Grey Walter W., V.J.Dovey and A.Shipton: Analysis of the electrical response of the human cortex to the photic stimulation. Nature, 158:540-541,1946. “…flicker rates at 7-14, like the resting alpha rhythm, produces…”resonant” frequencies…in subject with pronounced resonance response the self is able to recognize the resonant condition by a subjective change in sensation…”
Kandel E.:R.: In Search to Memory. The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. Norton & Co Inc., New York, (Codice Ed., Torino, 2007). “…information is encoded in the changing strength of synaptic connection between neurons…there are several mechanistic distinctions between different form of memory and synaptic plasticity…protein synthesis-dependent (activation of transcription and translation), late phase of LTP, is typically induced by repeated high frequency stimulation…this form of L-LTP is reduced in the aged animal and is positively correlated with age-related memory loss…paired pulse stimulation induces an enduring and protein synthesis dependent LTP…that is dependent on NMDA receptors activation, and requires voltage-dependent calcium channels, and is modulated by dopamine DI/D5 receptors…these results indicate that different pattern of synaptic stimulation can induce distinct forms of LTP that may have different roles in memory storage…”
Klimesch, W.: EEG-alpha rhythms and memory processes. Intern. J. Psychophysiol., 26 (1997) ”…the calculation of changes in band power indicate further that the upper alpha band is particularly sensitivwe to semantic memory demands….the lower alpha band seems to reflect attentional processes…these findings are discussed on the basis of an hypothesis, which assumes that EEG frequences within the alpha band, stem at least in part from the thalamus, and that the activity of the thalamo-cortical networks reflects processes that are related to searching, accessing and retrieving information from semantic long term memory…”
Klimesch W., P. Sauseng, S. Hanslmayr: EEG alpha oscillations: The inhibition-timing hypothesis. Brain Research Reviews, 53 (2007) 63-88. “…by the very nature of the oscillation, rhythmic amplitude changes reflect rhythmic changes in excitation of population of neurons….thus the time and direction of a change- described by phase-reset is functionally related to the timing of neuronal activation processes…the general conclusion is that the alpha ERS plays an active role for the inhibitory control and timing of cortical processing whereas ERD reflects the gradual release of inhibition associated with the emergence of complex spreading activation processes… …we assume that alpha ERS (Event Related Synchronization) reflect top-down inhibitory control processes…rhythmic amplitude changes (oscillations) reflect rhythmic changes in excitation of population of neurons…phase reset is a powerful mechanism for the event related timing of cortical processes…”
Lopes Da Silva F., and G. Pfurtsceller: Basic concepts on EEG synchronization and desynchronization. Handbook of Electronencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Vol.6: G.Pfurtscheller & F:H:LLopes Da Silva (Ed), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999. “…superficial pyramidal cells (called „chattering cells“) can generate 20-70 Hz repetitive burst firing and exhibit membrane oscillations at this frequency when they are stimulated with visual stimuli….such cells may be responsible for the synchronous oscillations in the beta/gamma range….”
Miltner W.H., C.Braun, M.Aenold, H.Wittel & E.Taubs: Coherence of gamma nabd EEG activity as a basis for associative learning. Letters to Nature,397:434-436,1999. “…Hebb suggest that information processing is accomplished by the formation of assemblies of cells whose synaptic linkages are strengthened, whenever the cells are activated or “ignited” synchronously…in the last decade was shown that gamma band coherence is involved in an associative learning procedure in humans…”
Pijnenburg,Y.A.L., Y.vd Made, A.M. vasn Capellen van Walsum, D.L.Knol, Ph.Schelten, C.J.Stam: EEG synchronization likelihood in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease during a workin memory task. Clin. Neurophysiol., 115: 1332-1339, 2004. “…during the working memory task the synchronization likelihood was significantly higher in MCI compared to the control subjects in the lowest band 8-10 Hz…”
Schroder, J., M.S.Buchsbaum, L.Shihabuddin, et Al..: Pattern of cortical activity and memory performance in Alzheimer’s disease. Biol.Physhciatry,49:426-436,2001. “…finding suggest that Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by altered patterns of cortical activity, rather than deficit in a single location, and emphasize the importance of right temporo-prefrontal circuitry for understanding memory deficits.”
Shaw, J.C.: The Brain’s Alpha Rhythms and the Mind. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003.
Selkoe, D.J.: Alzheimer’s disease is a synaptic failure. Science 298:798-791, 2002. “…in its earliest clinical phase AD characteristically produces a remarkably pure impairment of memory. Mounting evidence suggests that this syndrome begins with subtle alteration in hyppocampal synaptic efficacy prior to frank neuronal degeneration, and that synaptic disfunction is caused by diffusible oligomeric assemblies of the amyloid beta protein…”
Singer W.: Synchronous oscillations and memory formation. Elsevier, 2008. “…we may conclude that synchronized oscillatory activity is a necessary prerequisite for the induction of memory-related synaptic gain changes. In this context oscillations and the associate synchronization of spikes discharges (Spikes Timing Dependent Plasticity) play a crucial role in the coordination of distributed neuronal processing and the correlate engram formation… there it is growing evidence that cognitive deficits, including impairment in short- and long-term memory, such as occurs in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy, are associated with abnormal pattern of neuronal oscillations and related synchronization….”
Stam C.J., T.Montez, B.F.Jones, S.A.Rombouts, et Al.: Disturbed fluctuation of resting state EEG symchronization in Alzheimer ‘s disease. Clin.Neurophysio., 116:78-715,2005. “…synchronous oscillations can be considered a major candidate mechanism for integrating the activity of multiple brain regions…the lower alpha band is hypothesized to reflect attention process…whereas the upper alpha band may reflect long term semantic memory…”
Steriade M: Coherent oscillations and short-therm plasticity in cortico-thalamic network. TINS, 22 (1999) 337-345.
Steriade M.: Grouping of Brain Rhythms in Corticothalamic systems. Neuroscience 137 (2006) 1087-1106.
Tiraboschi P.L., A-Hansen, M. Alford, E. Masliah, L. J.Thal, and J. Corey-Bloom: The decline in the synapses and cholinergic activity is asynchronous in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 55 (2000) 1278-1283.
Ward L.M.: Synchronous neural oscillations and cognitive processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (2003), 553-559. “…The research supports the idea that the neural oscillations revealed by the EEG and MEG are closely related to dynamic processes of cognition….and that fundamental cognitive processes arise from the synchronous activity of neurons in the brain….moreover specific oscillations can be identified with particular cognitive processes: theta and gamma rhythms with memory encoding and retrieval, alpha and gamma with attentional suppression and focusing, and global synchronization at the gamma frequency with consciousness…”
Williams J.H.: Frequency specific effects of flicker on recognition memory. Neurosci. Letters, 104 (2001) 283-286. “…brain stimulation or peptides that alter electroencephalographic rhythms can modulate behaviour and enhance memory….by providing long-term potentiation, the neural basis of memory…”
Williams J., D. Ramaswamy, and A. Oulhaj: 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people. BMC Neuroscience 7 (2006) 21-28. “…our study indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problem in older people…”
Wilson B.J., Cockburn, A.Baddeley: The Rivermead Behavioural Memory est Manual., Reading Thames Valley Test Co., Ed.OS, Firenze, 1990.
Woertz M., G.Pfurtscheller, W.Klimesch: Alpha power dependent light stimulation: dynamics of event-related (de)synchronization in human electroencephalogram. Cognitive Brain Research, 20:256-260, 2004. “…in accordance with the alpha power in the 7-13 Hz band, short red light flashes of 10 ms duration were presented at intervals of at least 2 sec…this stimulation resulted in an event-related desynchronization (ERD) followed by resynchronization…”